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基督教不清白的历史:教义来自希腊迷信

热度 10已有 17328 次阅读2013-6-5 00:09 |个人分类:历史|系统分类:基科大辩论--科学派| 历史

我在《信而不割,难逃一劫》一文中,根据对圣经文字的分析指出,割礼是耶和华要求其子民在身体上做的记号,对于信而不割的,耶和华的惩罚是处死。我最后得出结论:"信耶和华而不割,是很危险的,很可能受到惩处。要信,先割了才有发言权。"

其实还是犹太人聪明。开始,他们根据圣经要入教的人都割,结果很多gentile人不愿割,但这些人有钱。于是犹太人说,不用割,出钱出力就可以了。于是很多gentile人就加入了,出钱出力。至于不割的后果?反正不关犹太人的事。相关历史,包括涉及金钱的部分,参见文末引用的文献。

保罗从未见过耶稣,原本是基督教的反对者,曾杀害基督徒,但后来宣传耶稣是上帝之子,而逐渐获得耶稣门徒的信任,更重要的是,他吸收的非犹太人信徒有钱,而耶路撒冷的母教会很穷。

围绕着基督徒是否要割的问题,相关的历史表明,耶稣在世的时候一直是要割的。耶稣死后,保罗认为,如果要求割的话,基督教很可能会消失,于是提出要放宽割的条款。耶稣的门徒们先是反对,但经过辩论,决定变通一下。

基督教里的关键教义,包括信徒死后灵魂得救之类,并非来自耶稣,而是保罗在耶稣死后根据埃及与希腊迷信为了迎合gentile人口味而创造基督教徒们信教,其实最终信的可能是他们的上帝不予接受的异端邪说。加上保罗原本反基督、杀害基督徒,以及后来教友们指控其利用传教敛财的指责,当今的教徒们可能被简单地耍了。

历史结论: “Protestantism was the triumph of Paul over Peter; Fundamentalism is the triumph of Paul over Christ.”  抗议教主义是保罗赢了彼得;原教旨主义是保罗赢了耶稣。

保罗的故事也告诉我们,死背教条是不行的,一种宗教要发展必须顺应时代与环境。

基督教已经完全与时代脱节了。要继续生存,至少应该进行下列改革,去除下列教义或者概念

1)上帝创造世界与人的概念---这来自古以色列神话,但已经太原始了,谁说相信大半是在撒谎;

2)耶稣是上帝儿子的概念,玛利亚是处女的概念---这都是耶稣死后其门徒编的,现代人都知道DNA,这个神话已经没有市场了;

3)原罪的概念---AUGUSTINE发展的东东,什么光屁股乱跑学会穿衣是原罪,婴儿在娘胎里就有罪,太荒唐、太不讲人性;

4)死后灵魂得救的概念---这是PAUL借用的希腊迷信,本来就不属于耶稣教。

/////先把相关历史拷贝于下--节选自《Caesar and Christ 》 by Will Durant //////////////////

II. PAUL


1. The Persecutor

The founder of Christian theology was born at Tarsus, in Cilicia, about the tenth year of our era. His father was a Pharisee, and brought up the youth in the fervent principles of that sect; the Apostle of the Gentiles never ceased to consider himself a Pharisee, even after he had rejected the Judaic Law. The father was also a Roman citizen, and transmitted the precious franchise to his son. Probably the name Paul was the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew Saul, so that both names belonged to the apostle from infancy.22 ...We may believe that some Stoic theology and ethics passed from the university environment of Tarsus into the Christianity of Paul. ...The mystery religions prepared the Greeks for Paul, and Paul for the Greeks.

...Stricter Pharisees were shocked to find him gazing appreciatively even upon pagan women.25 ...Despite Paul’s initiation into Hellenism he remained to the end a Jew in mind and character, uttered no doubt of the Torah’s inspiration, and proudly maintained the divine election of the Jews as the medium of man’s salvation.

...

He began by attacking Christianity in the name of Judaism, and ended by rejecting Judaism in the name of Christ; at every moment he was an apostle. Shocked by Stephen’s disrespect for the Law, he joined in killing him, and led the first persecution of Christians in Jerusalem. Hearing that the new faith had made converts in Damascus, he obtained authorization from the high priest to go there, arrest all “who belonged to the Way,” and bring them in chains to Jerusalem (A.D. 31?).30 It may be that the fervor of his persecution was due to secret doubts; he could be cruel, but not without remorse; possibly the vision of Stephen stoned to death, perhaps even some youthful glimpse of Golgotha, troubled his memory and his journey, and fevered his imagination. As his party neared Damascus, says the Acts,

a sudden light flashed upon him from heaven, and he fell to the ground. Then he heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?” “Who are you, sir?” he asked. “I am Jesus,”. . . said the voice. . . . Saul’s fellow-travelers stood speechless, for they heard the voice but could not see anyone. When he got up from the ground and opened his eyes he could see nothing. They had to take him by the hand and lead him into Damascus. For three days he could not see.31

No one can say what natural processes underlay this pivotal experience The fatigue of a long journey, the strength of the desert sun, perhaps a stroke of heat lightning in the sky, acting by accumulation upon a frail and possibly epileptic body, and a mind tortured by doubt and guilt, may have brought to culmination the half-conscious process by which the passionate denier became the ablest preacher of Stephen’s Christ... A few days later he entered the synagogues of Damascus, and told their congregations that Jesus was the Son of God.

2. The Missionary

...
Then Barnabas came and asked his aid in ministering to the church at Antioch. Working together (43-44?), they made so many converts that Antioch soon led all other cities in the number of its Christians. There for the first time ... the name Christianoi—followers of the Messiah or Anointed One. There too, for the first time, gentiles (i.e., people of the gentes or nations) were won to the new faith. Most of these were “God-fearers,” predominantly women, who had already accepted the monotheism, and in some part the ritual, of the Jews.

...

...To the Jew circumcision was not so much a ritual of health as a holy symbol of his people’s ancient covenant with God; and the Christian Jew was appalled at the thought of breaking that covenant. For their part Paul and Barnabas realized that if these emissaries had their way, Christianity would never be accepted by any significant number of gentiles; it would remain “a Jewish heresy” (as Heine was to call it), and would fade out in a century. They went down to Jerusalem (50?) and fought the matter out with the apostles, nearly all of whom were still faithful worshipers in the Temple. James was reluctant to consent; Peter defended the two missionaries; finally it was agreed that pagan proselytes should be required only to abstain from immorality and from the eating of sacrificial or strangled animals.34 Apparently Paul eased the way by promising financial support for the impoverished community at Jerusalem from the swelling funds of the Antioch church.35

The issue, however, was too vital to be so easily laid. A second group of orthodox Jewish Christians came from Jerusalem to Antioch, found Peter eating with gentiles, and persuaded him to separate himself, with the converted Jews, from the uncircumcized proselytes. We do not know Peter’s side of this episode; Paul tells us that “he withstood Peter to his face” at Antioch,36 and accused him of hypocrisy; perhaps Peter had merely wished, like Paul, to be “all things to all men.”

...Revisiting his churches in Asia Minor, Paul attached to himself at Lystra a young disciple named Timothy, whom he came to love with a profound affection that had long been starved for an object. Together they went through Phrygia and Galatia as far north as Alexandria Troas. Here Paul made the acquaintance of Luke, an uncircumcized proselyte to Judaism, a man of good mind and heart, probably the author of the Third Gospel and the Book of Acts—both designed to soften the conflicts that from the beginning marked the history of Christianity...

...


It was a brave effort to reconcile Christianity with Greek philosophy.† ...Paul offered his gospel to the gentiles of Corinth, and made many converts among them. Christianity may have seemed to them an acceptable variation of the mystery faiths that had so often told them of resurrected saviors; possibly in accepting it they assimilated it to these beliefs, and influenced Paul to interpret Christianity in terms familiar to the Hellenistic mind.
...

He spent some happy months with the little congregations he had founded in Philippi, Thessalonica, and Beraea. ... They had accused him of profiting materially from his preaching, laughed at his visions, and renewed the demand that all Christians should obey the Jewish Law. Paul reminded the turbulent community that he had everywhere earned his living with the work of his hands; and as to material profit, what had he not suffered from his missions?—eight floggings, one stoning, three shipwrecks, and a thousand dangers from robbers, patriots, and streams.40 Amid this turmoil word was brought him that the “party of the circumcision,” apparently violating the Jerusalem agreement, had gone into Galatia and demanded of all converts the full acceptance of the Jewish Law. He wrote to the Galatians a wrathful epistle in which he broke completely with the Judaizing Christians... Then, not knowing what sharper tribulations awaited him there, he left for Jerusalem, eager to defend himself before the Apostles...

3. The Theologian

The leaders of the mother church gave him “a hearty welcome” (57?); but privately they admonished him:

You see, brother, how many thousand believers there are among the Jews, all of them zealous upholders of the Law. They have been told that you teach all Jews who live among the heathen to turn away from Moses, that you tell them not to circumcize their children, nor to observe the old customs. . . . They will be sure to hear that you have come. So do what we tell you. We have four men here who are under a vow. Join them, undergo the rites of purification with them, and pay their expenses. . . . Then everybody will understand that there is no truth in the stories told about you, but that you yourself observe the Law.41

Paul took the advice in good spirit, and went through the rites of purification. But when some Jews saw him in the Temple they raised an outcry against him as “the man who teaches everybody everywhere against our people and the Law.” A mob seized him, dragged him from the Temple, and “were trying to kill him” when a squad of Roman soldiers rescued him by arrest. Paul turned to speak to the crowd, and affirmed both his Judaism and his Christianity. They shouted for his death. The Roman officer ordered him to be flogged, but desisted when he learned of Paul’s Roman citizenship. The next day he brought the prisoner before the Sanhedrin. Paul addressed it, proclaimed himself a Pharisee, and won some support; but his excited opponents again sought to do him violence, and the officer withdrew him into the barracks. That night a nephew of Paul came to warn him that forty Jews had vowed not to eat or drink until they had killed him. The officer, fearing a disturbance that would compromise him, sent Paul in the night to the procurator Felix at Caesarea.

...
When Festus succeeded Felix he suggested that Paul should stand trial before him at Jerusalem. Fearing that hostile environment, Paul exercised his rights as a Roman citzen, and demanded trial before the emperor. King Agrippa, passing through Caesarea, gave him another hearing, and judged him “mad with great learning,” but otherwise innocent; “he might be let go,” said Agrippa, “if he had not appealed to the emperor.” Paul was put on a trading vessel, which sailed so leisurely that it encountered a winter storm before it could reach Italy. Through fourteen days of tempest, we are told, he gave crew and passengers an encouraging example of a man superior to death and confident of rescue. The ship broke to pieces on Malta’s rocks, but all on board swam safely to shore. Three months later Paul arrived in Rome (61?).

The Roman authorities treated him leniently, awaiting his accusers from Palestine, and Nero’s leisure to hear the case. He was allowed to live in a house of his choosing, with a soldier to guard him; he could not move about freely, but he could receive whomever he wished. He invited the leading Jews of Rome to come to him; they heard him patiently, but when they perceived that in his judgment the observance of the Jewish Law was not necessary to salvation, they turned away; the Law seemed to them the indispensable prop and solace of Jewish life. “Understand, then,” said Paul, “that this message of God’s salvation has been sent to the heathen. They will listen to it!”42 His attitude offended also the Christian community that he found in Rome. These converts, chiefly Jews, preferred the Christianity that had been brought to them from Jerusalem; they practiced circumcision, and were hardly distinguished by Rome from the orthodox Jews; they welcomed Peter, but were cold to Paul. He made some converts among the gentiles, even in high place; but a bitter sense of frustration darkened the loneliness of his imprisonment.

.....influenced perhaps by Platonist and Stoic denunciations of matter and the body as evil; recalling, it may be, Jewish and pagan customs of sacrificing a “scapegoat” for the sins of the people, Paul created a theology of which none but the vaguest warrants can be found in the words of Christ: that every man born of woman inherits the guilt of Adam, and can be saved from eternal damnation only by the atoning death of the Son of God.* 50 Such a conception was more agreeable to the pagans than to the Jews. Egypt, Asia Minor, and Hellas had long since believed in gods—Osiris, Attis, Dionysus—who had died to redeem mankind; such titles as Soter (Savior) and Eleutherios (Deliverer) had been applied to these deities; and the word Kyrios (Lord), used by Paul of Christ, was the term given in Syrian-Greek cults to the dying and redeeming Dionysus.52 The gentiles of Antioch and other Greek cities, never having known Jesus in the flesh, could only accept him after the manner of their savior gods. “Behold,” said Paul, “I show you a mystery.”53

Paul added to this popular and consoling theology certain mystic conceptions already made current by the Book of Wisdom and the philosophy of Philo. Christ, said Paul, is “the wisdom of God,”54 the first-born Son of God; “he is before all things, in him all things exist . . . through him all things have been created.”55 He is not the Jewish Messiah who will deliver Israel from bondage; he is the Logos whose death will deliver all men. Through these interpretations Paul could neglect the actual life and sayings of Jesus, which he had not directly known, and could stand on an equality with the immediate apostles, who were no match for him in metaphysical speculation; he could give to the life of Christ, and to the life of man, high roles in a magnificent drama that embraced all souls and all eternity. Moreover, he could answer the troublesome questions of those who asked why Christ, if very god, had allowed himself to be put to death: Christ had died to redeem a world lost to Satan by Adam’s sin; he had to die to break the bonds of death and open the gates of heaven to all who should be touched by the grace of God.

Two factors, said Paul, determine who shall be saved by Christ’s death: divine election and humble faith. God chooses from all eternity those whom he will bless with his grace, and those whom he will damn.56 Nevertheless, Paul bestirred himself to awaken faith as a rod to catch God’s grace; only through such “assurance of things longed for,” such “confidence in things unseen,”57 can the soul experience that profound change which makes a new man, unites the believer with Christ, and allows him to share in the fruits of Christ’s death. Good works and the performance of all the 613 precepts of the Jewish Law will not suffice, said Paul; they cannot remake the inner man, or wash the soul of sin. The death of Christ had ended the epoch of the Law; now there should no more be Jew and Greek, slave and freeman, male and female, for “in union with Christ Jesus you are all one.”58 ...


4. The Martyr

...But from the defeated Paul came the theological structure of Christianity, as from Paul and Peter the astonishing organization of the Church. Paul had found a dream of Jewish eschatology, confined in Judaic Law; he had freed and broadened it into a faith that could move the world. With the patience of a statesman he had interwoven the ethics of the Jews with the metaphysics of the Greeks, and had transformed the Jesus of the Gospels into the Christ of theology. He had created a new mystery, a new form of the resurrection drama, which would absorb and survive all the rest. He had replaced conduct with creed as the test of virtue, and in that sense had begun the Middle Ages. It was a tragic change, but perhaps humanity had willed it so; only a few saints could achieve the imitation of Christ, but many souls could rise to faith and courage in the hope of eternal life.

The influence of Paul was not immediately felt. The communities that he had established were tiny isles in a pagan sea. The church at Rome was Peter’s, and remained faithful to his memory. For a century after Paul’s death he was almost forgotten. But when the first generations of Christianity had passed away, and the oral tradition of the apostles began to fade, and a hundred heresies disordered the Christian mind, the epistles of Paul provided the framework for a stabilizing system of belief that united the scattered congregations into a powerful Church.

Even so, the man who had detached Christianity from Judaism was still so essentially Jewish in intensity of character and sternness of morality that the Middle Ages, adopting paganism into a colorful Catholicism, saw no kindred spirit in him, built few churches to him, seldom sculptured his figure or used his name. Fifteen centuries went by before Luther made Paul the Apostle of the Reformation, and Calvin found in him the somber texts of the predestinarian creed. Protestantism was the triumph of Paul over Peter; Fundamentalism is the triumph of Paul over Christ.



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发表评论 评论 (33 个评论)

回复 人間的盒子 2013-6-5 03:06
他们选择性地继承和发展么
回复 追求永生 2013-6-5 03:12
还是板凳?强烈要求盒子把沙发让出来!

岳兄这又是中文又是英文的,是原创吗?
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 03:17
追求永生: 还是板凳?强烈要求盒子把沙发让出来!

岳兄这又是中文又是英文的,是原创吗?
英文是来自Will Durant的历史著作,《The History of Civilization》Vol.3, 是本文的历史资料来源
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 03:42
人間的盒子: 他们选择性地继承和发展么
基督教已经完全与时代脱节了。要继续生存,至少应该进行下列改革

1)去除上帝创造世界与人的概念---这来自古以色列神话,但已经太原始了;

2)去除耶稣是上帝儿子的概念,玛利亚是处女的概念---这都是耶稣死后其门徒的编的,现代人都知道DNA,这个神话已经没有市场了;

3)去除原罪的概念---AUGUSTINE发展的东东;

4)去除死后灵魂得救的概念---这是PAUL借用的希腊迷信。
回复 人間的盒子 2013-6-5 03:55
岳东晓: 基督教已经完全与时代脱节了。要继续生存,至少应该进行下列改革

1)去除上帝创造世界与人的概念;
2)去除耶稣是上帝儿子的概念,玛利亚是处女的概念;
3)去 ...
上帝造人弄得抽象点还可以,耶稣是神子这个太荒唐了
回复 蓝天绿地 2013-6-5 04:02
追求永生: 还是板凳?强烈要求盒子把沙发让出来!

岳兄这又是中文又是英文的,是原创吗?
‘强烈要求盒子把沙发让出来!’  你去跟老岳说好,凡是他的文,沙发你都包圆了!
回复 蓝天绿地 2013-6-5 04:02
这么复杂,还信他干啥,没事找事多麻烦呀!
回复 人間的盒子 2013-6-5 04:08
追求永生: 还是板凳?强烈要求盒子把沙发让出来!

岳兄这又是中文又是英文的,是原创吗?
   给你搬来了
回复 追求永生 2013-6-5 04:11
岳东晓: 英文是来自Will Durant的历史著作,《The History of Civilization》Vol.3, 是本文的历史资料来源
谢谢告知。
回复 追求永生 2013-6-5 04:13
恩,这个建议很有建设性,拟同意。
回复 追求永生 2013-6-5 04:16
人間的盒子:    给你搬来了
盒子这个沙发很高级,可以调整高低不同的姿态。
回复 人間的盒子 2013-6-5 04:25
追求永生: 盒子这个沙发很高级,可以调整高低不同的姿态。
是上帝造的,但不是你那个上帝
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 04:47
人間的盒子: 是上帝造的,但不是你那个上帝
  
回复 雨柔 2013-6-5 05:31
你否定圣经66本书,否定圣经都是神所默示的,清楚地证明:你批判滴,不是基督教滴神。
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 06:22
雨柔: 你否定圣经66本书,否定圣经都是神所默示的,清楚地证明:你批判滴,不是基督教滴神。
我只是转述历史研究。你啊,怎么脑子这么不开窍呢。看看人家保罗是怎么玩宗教的,大胆借用,名利双收啊。什么鬼神默示?他哪有那么丰富的想象力?都是从埃及希腊迷信中抄袭。

洪秀全玩拜上帝教都是自封为耶稣的兄弟,什么突然得到神示,给他同村的杨秀清也有样学样,装神弄鬼,两人互相还不好揭破。骗得上万的太平天国妇女誓死捍卫,湘军费了好大劲才剿灭。

假如洪秀全只会死背经书,能玩那么轰轰烈烈?
回复 雨柔 2013-6-5 07:00
岳东晓: 我只是转述历史研究。你啊,怎么脑子这么不开窍呢。看看人家保罗是怎么玩宗教的,大胆借用,名利双收啊。什么鬼神默示?他哪有那么丰富的想象力?都是从埃及希腊 ...
倘若你否定圣经是神所默示的,否定圣经包括66本书,你乐意怎么玩是你的事,只不过有一件已经很清楚:你的观点与基督教无关,你是在=========战风车。
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 07:01
雨柔: 倘若你否定圣经是神所默示的,否定圣经包括66本书,你乐意怎么玩是你的事,只不过有一件已经很清楚:你的观点与基督教无关,你是在=========战风车。    ...
你这样鸵鸟是不行的啊。我全文都是在讲述你们基督教经书的来历。仔细读读上面的历史,也算对你信的教有个了解。
回复 雨柔 2013-6-5 07:08
岳东晓: 你这样鸵鸟是不行的啊。我全文都是在讲述你们基督教经书的来历。仔细读读上面的历史,也算对你信的教有个了解。 ...
基督教基于圣经,你要挑战,欢迎,请以圣经为依据。你若离开圣经是神所默示为出发点,大战风车,是你的自由,我对战风车没有兴趣。
回复 岳东晓 2013-6-5 07:10
雨柔: 基督教基于圣经,你要挑战,欢迎,请以圣经为依据。你若离开圣经是神所默示为出发点,大战风车,是你的自由,我对战风车没有兴趣。 ...
你问你:你把圣经从头到尾读完了吗?理解了吗?读完了,再来看上面的内容。
回复 雨柔 2013-6-5 07:26
岳东晓: 你问你:你把圣经从头到尾读完了吗?理解了吗?读完了,再来看上面的内容。
你问我这个问题不觉得非常搞笑吗?这问题我问你差不多。

你看看你自己在blog日志中的建议,哈~我不反对,不过呢,应该给这个宗教取一个名字:叫岳氏教,以便与基督教区别开来。
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